Primitive Type u8

1.0.0 · []
Expand description

The 8-bit unsigned integer type.

Implementations

The smallest value that can be represented by this integer type.

Examples

Basic usage:

``assert_eq!(u8::MIN, 0);``
Run

The largest value that can be represented by this integer type (28 − 1)

Examples

Basic usage:

``assert_eq!(u8::MAX, 255);``
Run

The size of this integer type in bits.

Examples
``assert_eq!(u8::BITS, 8);``
Run

Converts a string slice in a given base to an integer.

The string is expected to be an optional `+` sign followed by digits. Leading and trailing whitespace represent an error. Digits are a subset of these characters, depending on `radix`:

• `0-9`
• `a-z`
• `A-Z`
Panics

This function panics if `radix` is not in the range from 2 to 36.

Examples

Basic usage:

``assert_eq!(u8::from_str_radix("A", 16), Ok(10));``
Run

Returns the number of ones in the binary representation of `self`.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````let n = 0b01001100u8;

assert_eq!(n.count_ones(), 3);``````
Run

Returns the number of zeros in the binary representation of `self`.

Examples

Basic usage:

``assert_eq!(u8::MAX.count_zeros(), 0);``
Run

Returns the number of leading zeros in the binary representation of `self`.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````let n = u8::MAX >> 2;

assert_eq!(n.leading_zeros(), 2);``````
Run

Returns the number of trailing zeros in the binary representation of `self`.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````let n = 0b0101000u8;

assert_eq!(n.trailing_zeros(), 3);``````
Run

Returns the number of leading ones in the binary representation of `self`.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````let n = !(u8::MAX >> 2);

assert_eq!(n.leading_ones(), 2);``````
Run

Returns the number of trailing ones in the binary representation of `self`.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````let n = 0b1010111u8;

assert_eq!(n.trailing_ones(), 3);``````
Run

Shifts the bits to the left by a specified amount, `n`, wrapping the truncated bits to the end of the resulting integer.

Please note this isn’t the same operation as the `<<` shifting operator!

Examples

Basic usage:

``````let n = 0x82u8;
let m = 0xa;

assert_eq!(n.rotate_left(2), m);``````
Run

Shifts the bits to the right by a specified amount, `n`, wrapping the truncated bits to the beginning of the resulting integer.

Please note this isn’t the same operation as the `>>` shifting operator!

Examples

Basic usage:

``````let n = 0xau8;
let m = 0x82;

assert_eq!(n.rotate_right(2), m);``````
Run

Reverses the byte order of the integer.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````let n = 0x12u8;
let m = n.swap_bytes();

assert_eq!(m, 0x12);``````
Run

Reverses the order of bits in the integer. The least significant bit becomes the most significant bit, second least-significant bit becomes second most-significant bit, etc.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````let n = 0x12u8;
let m = n.reverse_bits();

assert_eq!(m, 0x48);
assert_eq!(0, 0u8.reverse_bits());``````
Run

Converts an integer from big endian to the target’s endianness.

On big endian this is a no-op. On little endian the bytes are swapped.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````let n = 0x1Au8;

if cfg!(target_endian = "big") {
assert_eq!(u8::from_be(n), n)
} else {
assert_eq!(u8::from_be(n), n.swap_bytes())
}``````
Run

Converts an integer from little endian to the target’s endianness.

On little endian this is a no-op. On big endian the bytes are swapped.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````let n = 0x1Au8;

if cfg!(target_endian = "little") {
assert_eq!(u8::from_le(n), n)
} else {
assert_eq!(u8::from_le(n), n.swap_bytes())
}``````
Run

Converts `self` to big endian from the target’s endianness.

On big endian this is a no-op. On little endian the bytes are swapped.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````let n = 0x1Au8;

if cfg!(target_endian = "big") {
assert_eq!(n.to_be(), n)
} else {
assert_eq!(n.to_be(), n.swap_bytes())
}``````
Run

Converts `self` to little endian from the target’s endianness.

On little endian this is a no-op. On big endian the bytes are swapped.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````let n = 0x1Au8;

if cfg!(target_endian = "little") {
assert_eq!(n.to_le(), n)
} else {
assert_eq!(n.to_le(), n.swap_bytes())
}``````
Run

Checked integer addition. Computes `self + rhs`, returning `None` if overflow occurred.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert_eq!((u8::MAX - 2).checked_add(1), Some(u8::MAX - 1));
assert_eq!((u8::MAX - 2).checked_add(3), None);``````
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (`unchecked_math` #85122)

Unchecked integer addition. Computes `self + rhs`, assuming overflow cannot occur.

Safety

This results in undefined behavior when `self + rhs > u8::MAX` or `self + rhs < u8::MIN`, i.e. when `checked_add` would return `None`.

Checked addition with a signed integer. Computes `self + rhs`, returning `None` if overflow occurred.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert_eq!(1u8.checked_add_signed(2), Some(3));
assert_eq!(1u8.checked_add_signed(-2), None);
assert_eq!((u8::MAX - 2).checked_add_signed(3), None);``````
Run

Checked integer subtraction. Computes `self - rhs`, returning `None` if overflow occurred.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert_eq!(1u8.checked_sub(1), Some(0));
assert_eq!(0u8.checked_sub(1), None);``````
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (`unchecked_math` #85122)

Unchecked integer subtraction. Computes `self - rhs`, assuming overflow cannot occur.

Safety

This results in undefined behavior when `self - rhs > u8::MAX` or `self - rhs < u8::MIN`, i.e. when `checked_sub` would return `None`.

Checked integer multiplication. Computes `self * rhs`, returning `None` if overflow occurred.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert_eq!(5u8.checked_mul(1), Some(5));
assert_eq!(u8::MAX.checked_mul(2), None);``````
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (`unchecked_math` #85122)

Unchecked integer multiplication. Computes `self * rhs`, assuming overflow cannot occur.

Safety

This results in undefined behavior when `self * rhs > u8::MAX` or `self * rhs < u8::MIN`, i.e. when `checked_mul` would return `None`.

Checked integer division. Computes `self / rhs`, returning `None` if `rhs == 0`.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert_eq!(128u8.checked_div(2), Some(64));
assert_eq!(1u8.checked_div(0), None);``````
Run

Checked Euclidean division. Computes `self.div_euclid(rhs)`, returning `None` if `rhs == 0`.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert_eq!(128u8.checked_div_euclid(2), Some(64));
assert_eq!(1u8.checked_div_euclid(0), None);``````
Run

Checked integer remainder. Computes `self % rhs`, returning `None` if `rhs == 0`.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert_eq!(5u8.checked_rem(2), Some(1));
assert_eq!(5u8.checked_rem(0), None);``````
Run

Checked Euclidean modulo. Computes `self.rem_euclid(rhs)`, returning `None` if `rhs == 0`.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert_eq!(5u8.checked_rem_euclid(2), Some(1));
assert_eq!(5u8.checked_rem_euclid(0), None);``````
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (`int_log` #70887)

Returns the logarithm of the number with respect to an arbitrary base, rounded down.

This method might not be optimized owing to implementation details; `ilog2` can produce results more efficiently for base 2, and `ilog10` can produce results more efficiently for base 10.

Panics

This function will panic if `self` is zero, or if `base` is less then 2.

Examples
``````#![feature(int_log)]
assert_eq!(5u8.ilog(5), 1);``````
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (`int_log` #70887)

Returns the base 2 logarithm of the number, rounded down.

Panics

This function will panic if `self` is zero.

Examples
``````#![feature(int_log)]
assert_eq!(2u8.ilog2(), 1);``````
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (`int_log` #70887)

Returns the base 10 logarithm of the number, rounded down.

Panics

This function will panic if `self` is zero.

Example
``````#![feature(int_log)]
assert_eq!(10u8.ilog10(), 1);``````
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (`int_log` #70887)

Returns the logarithm of the number with respect to an arbitrary base, rounded down.

Returns `None` if the number is zero, or if the base is not at least 2.

This method might not be optimized owing to implementation details; `checked_ilog2` can produce results more efficiently for base 2, and `checked_ilog10` can produce results more efficiently for base 10.

Examples
``````#![feature(int_log)]
assert_eq!(5u8.checked_ilog(5), Some(1));``````
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (`int_log` #70887)

Returns the base 2 logarithm of the number, rounded down.

Returns `None` if the number is zero.

Examples
``````#![feature(int_log)]
assert_eq!(2u8.checked_ilog2(), Some(1));``````
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (`int_log` #70887)

Returns the base 10 logarithm of the number, rounded down.

Returns `None` if the number is zero.

Examples
``````#![feature(int_log)]
assert_eq!(10u8.checked_ilog10(), Some(1));``````
Run

Checked negation. Computes `-self`, returning `None` unless `self == 0`.

Note that negating any positive integer will overflow.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert_eq!(0u8.checked_neg(), Some(0));
assert_eq!(1u8.checked_neg(), None);``````
Run

Checked shift left. Computes `self << rhs`, returning `None` if `rhs` is larger than or equal to the number of bits in `self`.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert_eq!(0x1u8.checked_shl(4), Some(0x10));
assert_eq!(0x10u8.checked_shl(129), None);``````
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (`unchecked_math` #85122)

Unchecked shift left. Computes `self << rhs`, assuming that `rhs` is less than the number of bits in `self`.

Safety

This results in undefined behavior if `rhs` is larger than or equal to the number of bits in `self`, i.e. when `checked_shl` would return `None`.

Checked shift right. Computes `self >> rhs`, returning `None` if `rhs` is larger than or equal to the number of bits in `self`.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert_eq!(0x10u8.checked_shr(4), Some(0x1));
assert_eq!(0x10u8.checked_shr(129), None);``````
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (`unchecked_math` #85122)

Unchecked shift right. Computes `self >> rhs`, assuming that `rhs` is less than the number of bits in `self`.

Safety

This results in undefined behavior if `rhs` is larger than or equal to the number of bits in `self`, i.e. when `checked_shr` would return `None`.

Checked exponentiation. Computes `self.pow(exp)`, returning `None` if overflow occurred.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert_eq!(2u8.checked_pow(5), Some(32));
assert_eq!(u8::MAX.checked_pow(2), None);``````
Run

Saturating integer addition. Computes `self + rhs`, saturating at the numeric bounds instead of overflowing.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert_eq!(100u8.saturating_add(1), 101);
assert_eq!(u8::MAX.saturating_add(127), u8::MAX);``````
Run

Saturating addition with a signed integer. Computes `self + rhs`, saturating at the numeric bounds instead of overflowing.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert_eq!(1u8.saturating_add_signed(2), 3);
assert_eq!(1u8.saturating_add_signed(-2), 0);
assert_eq!((u8::MAX - 2).saturating_add_signed(4), u8::MAX);``````
Run

Saturating integer subtraction. Computes `self - rhs`, saturating at the numeric bounds instead of overflowing.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert_eq!(100u8.saturating_sub(27), 73);
assert_eq!(13u8.saturating_sub(127), 0);``````
Run

Saturating integer multiplication. Computes `self * rhs`, saturating at the numeric bounds instead of overflowing.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert_eq!(2u8.saturating_mul(10), 20);
assert_eq!((u8::MAX).saturating_mul(10), u8::MAX);``````
Run

Saturating integer division. Computes `self / rhs`, saturating at the numeric bounds instead of overflowing.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert_eq!(5u8.saturating_div(2), 2);
``````
Run
``````let _ = 1u8.saturating_div(0);
``````
Run

Saturating integer exponentiation. Computes `self.pow(exp)`, saturating at the numeric bounds instead of overflowing.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert_eq!(4u8.saturating_pow(3), 64);
assert_eq!(u8::MAX.saturating_pow(2), u8::MAX);``````
Run

Wrapping (modular) addition. Computes `self + rhs`, wrapping around at the boundary of the type.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert_eq!(200u8.wrapping_add(55), 255);
assert_eq!(200u8.wrapping_add(u8::MAX), 199);``````
Run

Wrapping (modular) addition with a signed integer. Computes `self + rhs`, wrapping around at the boundary of the type.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert_eq!(1u8.wrapping_add_signed(2), 3);
assert_eq!(1u8.wrapping_add_signed(-2), u8::MAX);
assert_eq!((u8::MAX - 2).wrapping_add_signed(4), 1);``````
Run

Wrapping (modular) subtraction. Computes `self - rhs`, wrapping around at the boundary of the type.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert_eq!(100u8.wrapping_sub(100), 0);
assert_eq!(100u8.wrapping_sub(u8::MAX), 101);``````
Run

Wrapping (modular) multiplication. Computes `self * rhs`, wrapping around at the boundary of the type.

Examples

Basic usage:

Please note that this example is shared between integer types. Which explains why `u8` is used here.

``````assert_eq!(10u8.wrapping_mul(12), 120);
assert_eq!(25u8.wrapping_mul(12), 44);``````
Run

Wrapping (modular) division. Computes `self / rhs`. Wrapped division on unsigned types is just normal division. There’s no way wrapping could ever happen. This function exists, so that all operations are accounted for in the wrapping operations.

Examples

Basic usage:

``assert_eq!(100u8.wrapping_div(10), 10);``
Run

Wrapping Euclidean division. Computes `self.div_euclid(rhs)`. Wrapped division on unsigned types is just normal division. There’s no way wrapping could ever happen. This function exists, so that all operations are accounted for in the wrapping operations. Since, for the positive integers, all common definitions of division are equal, this is exactly equal to `self.wrapping_div(rhs)`.

Examples

Basic usage:

``assert_eq!(100u8.wrapping_div_euclid(10), 10);``
Run

Wrapping (modular) remainder. Computes `self % rhs`. Wrapped remainder calculation on unsigned types is just the regular remainder calculation. There’s no way wrapping could ever happen. This function exists, so that all operations are accounted for in the wrapping operations.

Examples

Basic usage:

``assert_eq!(100u8.wrapping_rem(10), 0);``
Run

Wrapping Euclidean modulo. Computes `self.rem_euclid(rhs)`. Wrapped modulo calculation on unsigned types is just the regular remainder calculation. There’s no way wrapping could ever happen. This function exists, so that all operations are accounted for in the wrapping operations. Since, for the positive integers, all common definitions of division are equal, this is exactly equal to `self.wrapping_rem(rhs)`.

Examples

Basic usage:

``assert_eq!(100u8.wrapping_rem_euclid(10), 0);``
Run

Wrapping (modular) negation. Computes `-self`, wrapping around at the boundary of the type.

Since unsigned types do not have negative equivalents all applications of this function will wrap (except for `-0`). For values smaller than the corresponding signed type’s maximum the result is the same as casting the corresponding signed value. Any larger values are equivalent to `MAX + 1 - (val - MAX - 1)` where `MAX` is the corresponding signed type’s maximum.

Examples

Basic usage:

Please note that this example is shared between integer types. Which explains why `i8` is used here.

``````assert_eq!(100i8.wrapping_neg(), -100);
assert_eq!((-128i8).wrapping_neg(), -128);``````
Run

Panic-free bitwise shift-left; yields `self << mask(rhs)`, where `mask` removes any high-order bits of `rhs` that would cause the shift to exceed the bitwidth of the type.

Note that this is not the same as a rotate-left; the RHS of a wrapping shift-left is restricted to the range of the type, rather than the bits shifted out of the LHS being returned to the other end. The primitive integer types all implement a `rotate_left` function, which may be what you want instead.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert_eq!(1u8.wrapping_shl(7), 128);
assert_eq!(1u8.wrapping_shl(128), 1);``````
Run

Panic-free bitwise shift-right; yields `self >> mask(rhs)`, where `mask` removes any high-order bits of `rhs` that would cause the shift to exceed the bitwidth of the type.

Note that this is not the same as a rotate-right; the RHS of a wrapping shift-right is restricted to the range of the type, rather than the bits shifted out of the LHS being returned to the other end. The primitive integer types all implement a `rotate_right` function, which may be what you want instead.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert_eq!(128u8.wrapping_shr(7), 1);
assert_eq!(128u8.wrapping_shr(128), 128);``````
Run

Wrapping (modular) exponentiation. Computes `self.pow(exp)`, wrapping around at the boundary of the type.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert_eq!(3u8.wrapping_pow(5), 243);
assert_eq!(3u8.wrapping_pow(6), 217);``````
Run

Calculates `self` + `rhs`

Returns a tuple of the addition along with a boolean indicating whether an arithmetic overflow would occur. If an overflow would have occurred then the wrapped value is returned.

Examples

Basic usage

``````assert_eq!(5u8.overflowing_add(2), (7, false));
assert_eq!(u8::MAX.overflowing_add(1), (0, true));``````
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (`bigint_helper_methods` #85532)

Calculates `self` + `rhs` + `carry` and returns a tuple containing the sum and the output carry.

Performs “ternary addition” of two integer operands and a carry-in bit, and returns an output integer and a carry-out bit. This allows chaining together multiple additions to create a wider addition, and can be useful for bignum addition.

This can be thought of as a 8-bit “full adder”, in the electronics sense.

If the input carry is false, this method is equivalent to `overflowing_add`, and the output carry is equal to the overflow flag. Note that although carry and overflow flags are similar for unsigned integers, they are different for signed integers.

Examples
``````#![feature(bigint_helper_methods)]

//    3  MAX    (a = 3 × 2^8 + 2^8 - 1)
// +  5    7    (b = 5 × 2^8 + 7)
// ---------
//    9    6    (sum = 9 × 2^8 + 6)

let (a1, a0): (u8, u8) = (3, u8::MAX);
let (b1, b0): (u8, u8) = (5, 7);
let carry0 = false;

let (sum0, carry1) = a0.carrying_add(b0, carry0);
assert_eq!(carry1, true);
let (sum1, carry2) = a1.carrying_add(b1, carry1);
assert_eq!(carry2, false);

assert_eq!((sum1, sum0), (9, 6));``````
Run

Calculates `self` + `rhs` with a signed `rhs`

Returns a tuple of the addition along with a boolean indicating whether an arithmetic overflow would occur. If an overflow would have occurred then the wrapped value is returned.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert_eq!(1u8.overflowing_add_signed(2), (3, false));
assert_eq!(1u8.overflowing_add_signed(-2), (u8::MAX, true));
assert_eq!((u8::MAX - 2).overflowing_add_signed(4), (1, true));``````
Run

Calculates `self` - `rhs`

Returns a tuple of the subtraction along with a boolean indicating whether an arithmetic overflow would occur. If an overflow would have occurred then the wrapped value is returned.

Examples

Basic usage

``````assert_eq!(5u8.overflowing_sub(2), (3, false));
assert_eq!(0u8.overflowing_sub(1), (u8::MAX, true));``````
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (`bigint_helper_methods` #85532)

Calculates `self``rhs``borrow` and returns a tuple containing the difference and the output borrow.

Performs “ternary subtraction” by subtracting both an integer operand and a borrow-in bit from `self`, and returns an output integer and a borrow-out bit. This allows chaining together multiple subtractions to create a wider subtraction, and can be useful for bignum subtraction.

Examples
``````#![feature(bigint_helper_methods)]

//    9    6    (a = 9 × 2^8 + 6)
// -  5    7    (b = 5 × 2^8 + 7)
// ---------
//    3  MAX    (diff = 3 × 2^8 + 2^8 - 1)

let (a1, a0): (u8, u8) = (9, 6);
let (b1, b0): (u8, u8) = (5, 7);
let borrow0 = false;

let (diff0, borrow1) = a0.borrowing_sub(b0, borrow0);
assert_eq!(borrow1, true);
let (diff1, borrow2) = a1.borrowing_sub(b1, borrow1);
assert_eq!(borrow2, false);

assert_eq!((diff1, diff0), (3, u8::MAX));``````
Run

Computes the absolute difference between `self` and `other`.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert_eq!(100u8.abs_diff(80), 20u8);
assert_eq!(100u8.abs_diff(110), 10u8);``````
Run

Calculates the multiplication of `self` and `rhs`.

Returns a tuple of the multiplication along with a boolean indicating whether an arithmetic overflow would occur. If an overflow would have occurred then the wrapped value is returned.

Examples

Basic usage:

Please note that this example is shared between integer types. Which explains why `u32` is used here.

``````assert_eq!(5u32.overflowing_mul(2), (10, false));
assert_eq!(1_000_000_000u32.overflowing_mul(10), (1410065408, true));``````
Run

Calculates the divisor when `self` is divided by `rhs`.

Returns a tuple of the divisor along with a boolean indicating whether an arithmetic overflow would occur. Note that for unsigned integers overflow never occurs, so the second value is always `false`.

Panics

This function will panic if `rhs` is 0.

Examples

Basic usage

``assert_eq!(5u8.overflowing_div(2), (2, false));``
Run

Calculates the quotient of Euclidean division `self.div_euclid(rhs)`.

Returns a tuple of the divisor along with a boolean indicating whether an arithmetic overflow would occur. Note that for unsigned integers overflow never occurs, so the second value is always `false`. Since, for the positive integers, all common definitions of division are equal, this is exactly equal to `self.overflowing_div(rhs)`.

Panics

This function will panic if `rhs` is 0.

Examples

Basic usage

``assert_eq!(5u8.overflowing_div_euclid(2), (2, false));``
Run

Calculates the remainder when `self` is divided by `rhs`.

Returns a tuple of the remainder after dividing along with a boolean indicating whether an arithmetic overflow would occur. Note that for unsigned integers overflow never occurs, so the second value is always `false`.

Panics

This function will panic if `rhs` is 0.

Examples

Basic usage

``assert_eq!(5u8.overflowing_rem(2), (1, false));``
Run

Calculates the remainder `self.rem_euclid(rhs)` as if by Euclidean division.

Returns a tuple of the modulo after dividing along with a boolean indicating whether an arithmetic overflow would occur. Note that for unsigned integers overflow never occurs, so the second value is always `false`. Since, for the positive integers, all common definitions of division are equal, this operation is exactly equal to `self.overflowing_rem(rhs)`.

Panics

This function will panic if `rhs` is 0.

Examples

Basic usage

``assert_eq!(5u8.overflowing_rem_euclid(2), (1, false));``
Run

Negates self in an overflowing fashion.

Returns `!self + 1` using wrapping operations to return the value that represents the negation of this unsigned value. Note that for positive unsigned values overflow always occurs, but negating 0 does not overflow.

Examples

Basic usage

``````assert_eq!(0u8.overflowing_neg(), (0, false));
assert_eq!(2u8.overflowing_neg(), (-2i32 as u8, true));``````
Run

Shifts self left by `rhs` bits.

Returns a tuple of the shifted version of self along with a boolean indicating whether the shift value was larger than or equal to the number of bits. If the shift value is too large, then value is masked (N-1) where N is the number of bits, and this value is then used to perform the shift.

Examples

Basic usage

``````assert_eq!(0x1u8.overflowing_shl(4), (0x10, false));
assert_eq!(0x1u8.overflowing_shl(132), (0x10, true));``````
Run

Shifts self right by `rhs` bits.

Returns a tuple of the shifted version of self along with a boolean indicating whether the shift value was larger than or equal to the number of bits. If the shift value is too large, then value is masked (N-1) where N is the number of bits, and this value is then used to perform the shift.

Examples

Basic usage

``````assert_eq!(0x10u8.overflowing_shr(4), (0x1, false));
assert_eq!(0x10u8.overflowing_shr(132), (0x1, true));``````
Run

Raises self to the power of `exp`, using exponentiation by squaring.

Returns a tuple of the exponentiation along with a bool indicating whether an overflow happened.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert_eq!(3u8.overflowing_pow(5), (243, false));
assert_eq!(3u8.overflowing_pow(6), (217, true));``````
Run

Raises self to the power of `exp`, using exponentiation by squaring.

Examples

Basic usage:

``assert_eq!(2u8.pow(5), 32);``
Run

Performs Euclidean division.

Since, for the positive integers, all common definitions of division are equal, this is exactly equal to `self / rhs`.

Panics

This function will panic if `rhs` is 0.

Examples

Basic usage:

``assert_eq!(7u8.div_euclid(4), 1); // or any other integer type``
Run

Calculates the least remainder of `self (mod rhs)`.

Since, for the positive integers, all common definitions of division are equal, this is exactly equal to `self % rhs`.

Panics

This function will panic if `rhs` is 0.

Examples

Basic usage:

``assert_eq!(7u8.rem_euclid(4), 3); // or any other integer type``
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (`int_roundings` #88581)

Calculates the quotient of `self` and `rhs`, rounding the result towards negative infinity.

This is the same as performing `self / rhs` for all unsigned integers.

Panics

This function will panic if `rhs` is zero.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````#![feature(int_roundings)]
assert_eq!(7_u8.div_floor(4), 1);``````
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (`int_roundings` #88581)

Calculates the quotient of `self` and `rhs`, rounding the result towards positive infinity.

Panics

This function will panic if `rhs` is zero.

Overflow behavior

On overflow, this function will panic if overflow checks are enabled (default in debug mode) and wrap if overflow checks are disabled (default in release mode).

Examples

Basic usage:

``````#![feature(int_roundings)]
assert_eq!(7_u8.div_ceil(4), 2);``````
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (`int_roundings` #88581)

Calculates the smallest value greater than or equal to `self` that is a multiple of `rhs`.

Panics

This function will panic if `rhs` is zero.

Overflow behavior

On overflow, this function will panic if overflow checks are enabled (default in debug mode) and wrap if overflow checks are disabled (default in release mode).

Examples

Basic usage:

``````#![feature(int_roundings)]
assert_eq!(16_u8.next_multiple_of(8), 16);
assert_eq!(23_u8.next_multiple_of(8), 24);``````
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (`int_roundings` #88581)

Calculates the smallest value greater than or equal to `self` that is a multiple of `rhs`. Returns `None` if `rhs` is zero or the operation would result in overflow.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````#![feature(int_roundings)]
assert_eq!(16_u8.checked_next_multiple_of(8), Some(16));
assert_eq!(23_u8.checked_next_multiple_of(8), Some(24));
assert_eq!(1_u8.checked_next_multiple_of(0), None);
assert_eq!(u8::MAX.checked_next_multiple_of(2), None);``````
Run

Returns `true` if and only if `self == 2^k` for some `k`.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert!(16u8.is_power_of_two());
assert!(!10u8.is_power_of_two());``````
Run

Returns the smallest power of two greater than or equal to `self`.

When return value overflows (i.e., `self > (1 << (N-1))` for type `uN`), it panics in debug mode and the return value is wrapped to 0 in release mode (the only situation in which method can return 0).

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert_eq!(2u8.next_power_of_two(), 2);
assert_eq!(3u8.next_power_of_two(), 4);``````
Run

Returns the smallest power of two greater than or equal to `n`. If the next power of two is greater than the type’s maximum value, `None` is returned, otherwise the power of two is wrapped in `Some`.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````assert_eq!(2u8.checked_next_power_of_two(), Some(2));
assert_eq!(3u8.checked_next_power_of_two(), Some(4));
assert_eq!(u8::MAX.checked_next_power_of_two(), None);``````
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (`wrapping_next_power_of_two` #32463)

Returns the smallest power of two greater than or equal to `n`. If the next power of two is greater than the type’s maximum value, the return value is wrapped to `0`.

Examples

Basic usage:

``````#![feature(wrapping_next_power_of_two)]

assert_eq!(2u8.wrapping_next_power_of_two(), 2);
assert_eq!(3u8.wrapping_next_power_of_two(), 4);
assert_eq!(u8::MAX.wrapping_next_power_of_two(), 0);``````
Run

Return the memory representation of this integer as a byte array in big-endian (network) byte order.

Examples
``````let bytes = 0x12u8.to_be_bytes();
assert_eq!(bytes, [0x12]);``````
Run

Return the memory representation of this integer as a byte array in little-endian byte order.

Examples
``````let bytes = 0x12u8.to_le_bytes();
assert_eq!(bytes, [0x12]);``````
Run

Return the memory representation of this integer as a byte array in native byte order.

As the target platform’s native endianness is used, portable code should use `to_be_bytes` or `to_le_bytes`, as appropriate, instead.

Examples
``````let bytes = 0x12u8.to_ne_bytes();
assert_eq!(
bytes,
if cfg!(target_endian = "big") {
[0x12]
} else {
[0x12]
}
);``````
Run

Create a native endian integer value from its representation as a byte array in big endian.

Examples
``````let value = u8::from_be_bytes([0x12]);
assert_eq!(value, 0x12);``````
Run

When starting from a slice rather than an array, fallible conversion APIs can be used:

``````fn read_be_u8(input: &mut &[u8]) -> u8 {
let (int_bytes, rest) = input.split_at(std::mem::size_of::<u8>());
*input = rest;
u8::from_be_bytes(int_bytes.try_into().unwrap())
}``````
Run

Create a native endian integer value from its representation as a byte array in little endian.

Examples
``````let value = u8::from_le_bytes([0x12]);
assert_eq!(value, 0x12);``````
Run

When starting from a slice rather than an array, fallible conversion APIs can be used:

``````fn read_le_u8(input: &mut &[u8]) -> u8 {
let (int_bytes, rest) = input.split_at(std::mem::size_of::<u8>());
*input = rest;
u8::from_le_bytes(int_bytes.try_into().unwrap())
}``````
Run

Create a native endian integer value from its memory representation as a byte array in native endianness.

As the target platform’s native endianness is used, portable code likely wants to use `from_be_bytes` or `from_le_bytes`, as appropriate instead.

Examples
``````let value = u8::from_ne_bytes(if cfg!(target_endian = "big") {
[0x12]
} else {
[0x12]
});
assert_eq!(value, 0x12);``````
Run

When starting from a slice rather than an array, fallible conversion APIs can be used:

``````fn read_ne_u8(input: &mut &[u8]) -> u8 {
let (int_bytes, rest) = input.split_at(std::mem::size_of::<u8>());
*input = rest;
u8::from_ne_bytes(int_bytes.try_into().unwrap())
}``````
Run
👎Deprecating in a future Rust version: replaced by the `MIN` associated constant on this type

New code should prefer to use `u8::MIN` instead.

Returns the smallest value that can be represented by this integer type.

👎Deprecating in a future Rust version: replaced by the `MAX` associated constant on this type

New code should prefer to use `u8::MAX` instead.

Returns the largest value that can be represented by this integer type.

🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (`bigint_helper_methods` #85532)

Calculates the complete product `self * rhs` without the possibility to overflow.

This returns the low-order (wrapping) bits and the high-order (overflow) bits of the result as two separate values, in that order.

If you also need to add a carry to the wide result, then you want `Self::carrying_mul` instead.

Examples

Basic usage:

Please note that this example is shared between integer types. Which explains why `u32` is used here.

``````#![feature(bigint_helper_methods)]
assert_eq!(5u32.widening_mul(2), (10, 0));
assert_eq!(1_000_000_000u32.widening_mul(10), (1410065408, 2));``````
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (`bigint_helper_methods` #85532)

Calculates the “full multiplication” `self * rhs + carry` without the possibility to overflow.

This returns the low-order (wrapping) bits and the high-order (overflow) bits of the result as two separate values, in that order.

Performs “long multiplication” which takes in an extra amount to add, and may return an additional amount of overflow. This allows for chaining together multiple multiplications to create “big integers” which represent larger values.

If you don’t need the `carry`, then you can use `Self::widening_mul` instead.

Examples

Basic usage:

Please note that this example is shared between integer types. Which explains why `u32` is used here.

``````#![feature(bigint_helper_methods)]
assert_eq!(5u32.carrying_mul(2, 0), (10, 0));
assert_eq!(5u32.carrying_mul(2, 10), (20, 0));
assert_eq!(1_000_000_000u32.carrying_mul(10, 0), (1410065408, 2));
assert_eq!(1_000_000_000u32.carrying_mul(10, 10), (1410065418, 2));
assert_eq!(u8::MAX.carrying_mul(u8::MAX, u8::MAX), (0, u8::MAX));``````
Run

This is the core operation needed for scalar multiplication when implementing it for wider-than-native types.

``````#![feature(bigint_helper_methods)]
fn scalar_mul_eq(little_endian_digits: &mut Vec<u16>, multiplicand: u16) {
let mut carry = 0;
for d in little_endian_digits.iter_mut() {
(*d, carry) = d.carrying_mul(multiplicand, carry);
}
if carry != 0 {
little_endian_digits.push(carry);
}
}

let mut v = vec![10, 20];
scalar_mul_eq(&mut v, 3);
assert_eq!(v, [30, 60]);

assert_eq!(0x87654321_u64 * 0xFEED, 0x86D3D159E38D);
let mut v = vec![0x4321, 0x8765];
scalar_mul_eq(&mut v, 0xFEED);
assert_eq!(v, [0xE38D, 0xD159, 0x86D3]);``````
Run

If `carry` is zero, this is similar to `overflowing_mul`, except that it gives the value of the overflow instead of just whether one happened:

``````#![feature(bigint_helper_methods)]
let r = u8::carrying_mul(7, 13, 0);
assert_eq!((r.0, r.1 != 0), u8::overflowing_mul(7, 13));
let r = u8::carrying_mul(13, 42, 0);
assert_eq!((r.0, r.1 != 0), u8::overflowing_mul(13, 42));``````
Run

The value of the first field in the returned tuple matches what you’d get by combining the `wrapping_mul` and `wrapping_add` methods:

``````#![feature(bigint_helper_methods)]
assert_eq!(
789_u16.carrying_mul(456, 123).0,
789_u16.wrapping_mul(456).wrapping_add(123),
);``````
Run

Checks if the value is within the ASCII range.

Examples
``````let ascii = 97u8;
let non_ascii = 150u8;

assert!(ascii.is_ascii());
assert!(!non_ascii.is_ascii());``````
Run

Makes a copy of the value in its ASCII upper case equivalent.

ASCII letters ‘a’ to ‘z’ are mapped to ‘A’ to ‘Z’, but non-ASCII letters are unchanged.

To uppercase the value in-place, use `make_ascii_uppercase`.

Examples
``````let lowercase_a = 97u8;

assert_eq!(65, lowercase_a.to_ascii_uppercase());``````
Run

Makes a copy of the value in its ASCII lower case equivalent.

ASCII letters ‘A’ to ‘Z’ are mapped to ‘a’ to ‘z’, but non-ASCII letters are unchanged.

To lowercase the value in-place, use `make_ascii_lowercase`.

Examples
``````let uppercase_a = 65u8;

assert_eq!(97, uppercase_a.to_ascii_lowercase());``````
Run

Checks that two values are an ASCII case-insensitive match.

This is equivalent to `to_ascii_lowercase(a) == to_ascii_lowercase(b)`.

Examples
``````let lowercase_a = 97u8;
let uppercase_a = 65u8;

assert!(lowercase_a.eq_ignore_ascii_case(&uppercase_a));``````
Run

Converts this value to its ASCII upper case equivalent in-place.

ASCII letters ‘a’ to ‘z’ are mapped to ‘A’ to ‘Z’, but non-ASCII letters are unchanged.

To return a new uppercased value without modifying the existing one, use `to_ascii_uppercase`.

Examples
``````let mut byte = b'a';

byte.make_ascii_uppercase();

assert_eq!(b'A', byte);``````
Run

Converts this value to its ASCII lower case equivalent in-place.

ASCII letters ‘A’ to ‘Z’ are mapped to ‘a’ to ‘z’, but non-ASCII letters are unchanged.

To return a new lowercased value without modifying the existing one, use `to_ascii_lowercase`.

Examples
``````let mut byte = b'A';

byte.make_ascii_lowercase();

assert_eq!(b'a', byte);``````
Run

Checks if the value is an ASCII alphabetic character:

• U+0041 ‘A’ ..= U+005A ‘Z’, or
• U+0061 ‘a’ ..= U+007A ‘z’.
Examples
``````let uppercase_a = b'A';
let uppercase_g = b'G';
let a = b'a';
let g = b'g';
let zero = b'0';
let percent = b'%';
let space = b' ';
let lf = b'\n';
let esc = b'\x1b';

assert!(uppercase_a.is_ascii_alphabetic());
assert!(uppercase_g.is_ascii_alphabetic());
assert!(a.is_ascii_alphabetic());
assert!(g.is_ascii_alphabetic());
assert!(!zero.is_ascii_alphabetic());
assert!(!percent.is_ascii_alphabetic());
assert!(!space.is_ascii_alphabetic());
assert!(!lf.is_ascii_alphabetic());
assert!(!esc.is_ascii_alphabetic());``````
Run

Checks if the value is an ASCII uppercase character: U+0041 ‘A’ ..= U+005A ‘Z’.

Examples
``````let uppercase_a = b'A';
let uppercase_g = b'G';
let a = b'a';
let g = b'g';
let zero = b'0';
let percent = b'%';
let space = b' ';
let lf = b'\n';
let esc = b'\x1b';

assert!(uppercase_a.is_ascii_uppercase());
assert!(uppercase_g.is_ascii_uppercase());
assert!(!a.is_ascii_uppercase());
assert!(!g.is_ascii_uppercase());
assert!(!zero.is_ascii_uppercase());
assert!(!percent.is_ascii_uppercase());
assert!(!space.is_ascii_uppercase());
assert!(!lf.is_ascii_uppercase());
assert!(!esc.is_ascii_uppercase());``````
Run

Checks if the value is an ASCII lowercase character: U+0061 ‘a’ ..= U+007A ‘z’.

Examples
``````let uppercase_a = b'A';
let uppercase_g = b'G';
let a = b'a';
let g = b'g';
let zero = b'0';
let percent = b'%';
let space = b' ';
let lf = b'\n';
let esc = b'\x1b';

assert!(!uppercase_a.is_ascii_lowercase());
assert!(!uppercase_g.is_ascii_lowercase());
assert!(a.is_ascii_lowercase());
assert!(g.is_ascii_lowercase());
assert!(!zero.is_ascii_lowercase());
assert!(!percent.is_ascii_lowercase());
assert!(!space.is_ascii_lowercase());
assert!(!lf.is_ascii_lowercase());
assert!(!esc.is_ascii_lowercase());``````
Run

Checks if the value is an ASCII alphanumeric character:

• U+0041 ‘A’ ..= U+005A ‘Z’, or
• U+0061 ‘a’ ..= U+007A ‘z’, or
• U+0030 ‘0’ ..= U+0039 ‘9’.
Examples
``````let uppercase_a = b'A';
let uppercase_g = b'G';
let a = b'a';
let g = b'g';
let zero = b'0';
let percent = b'%';
let space = b' ';
let lf = b'\n';
let esc = b'\x1b';

assert!(uppercase_a.is_ascii_alphanumeric());
assert!(uppercase_g.is_ascii_alphanumeric());
assert!(a.is_ascii_alphanumeric());
assert!(g.is_ascii_alphanumeric());
assert!(zero.is_ascii_alphanumeric());
assert!(!percent.is_ascii_alphanumeric());
assert!(!space.is_ascii_alphanumeric());
assert!(!lf.is_ascii_alphanumeric());
assert!(!esc.is_ascii_alphanumeric());``````
Run

Checks if the value is an ASCII decimal digit: U+0030 ‘0’ ..= U+0039 ‘9’.

Examples
``````let uppercase_a = b'A';
let uppercase_g = b'G';
let a = b'a';
let g = b'g';
let zero = b'0';
let percent = b'%';
let space = b' ';
let lf = b'\n';
let esc = b'\x1b';

assert!(!uppercase_a.is_ascii_digit());
assert!(!uppercase_g.is_ascii_digit());
assert!(!a.is_ascii_digit());
assert!(!g.is_ascii_digit());
assert!(zero.is_ascii_digit());
assert!(!percent.is_ascii_digit());
assert!(!space.is_ascii_digit());
assert!(!lf.is_ascii_digit());
assert!(!esc.is_ascii_digit());``````
Run
🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (`is_ascii_octdigit` #101288)

Checks if the value is an ASCII octal digit: U+0030 ‘0’ ..= U+0037 ‘7’.

Examples
``````#![feature(is_ascii_octdigit)]

let uppercase_a = b'A';
let a = b'a';
let zero = b'0';
let seven = b'7';
let nine = b'9';
let percent = b'%';
let lf = b'\n';

assert!(!uppercase_a.is_ascii_octdigit());
assert!(!a.is_ascii_octdigit());
assert!(zero.is_ascii_octdigit());
assert!(seven.is_ascii_octdigit());
assert!(!nine.is_ascii_octdigit());
assert!(!percent.is_ascii_octdigit());
assert!(!lf.is_ascii_octdigit());``````
Run

Checks if the value is an ASCII hexadecimal digit:

• U+0030 ‘0’ ..= U+0039 ‘9’, or
• U+0041 ‘A’ ..= U+0046 ‘F’, or
• U+0061 ‘a’ ..= U+0066 ‘f’.
Examples
``````let uppercase_a = b'A';
let uppercase_g = b'G';
let a = b'a';
let g = b'g';
let zero = b'0';
let percent = b'%';
let space = b' ';
let lf = b'\n';
let esc = b'\x1b';

assert!(uppercase_a.is_ascii_hexdigit());
assert!(!uppercase_g.is_ascii_hexdigit());
assert!(a.is_ascii_hexdigit());
assert!(!g.is_ascii_hexdigit());
assert!(zero.is_ascii_hexdigit());
assert!(!percent.is_ascii_hexdigit());
assert!(!space.is_ascii_hexdigit());
assert!(!lf.is_ascii_hexdigit());
assert!(!esc.is_ascii_hexdigit());``````
Run

Checks if the value is an ASCII punctuation character:

• U+0021 ..= U+002F `! " # \$ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /`, or
• U+003A ..= U+0040 `: ; < = > ? @`, or
• U+005B ..= U+0060 `[ \ ] ^ _ ``, or
• U+007B ..= U+007E `{ | } ~`
Examples
``````let uppercase_a = b'A';
let uppercase_g = b'G';
let a = b'a';
let g = b'g';
let zero = b'0';
let percent = b'%';
let space = b' ';
let lf = b'\n';
let esc = b'\x1b';

assert!(!uppercase_a.is_ascii_punctuation());
assert!(!uppercase_g.is_ascii_punctuation());
assert!(!a.is_ascii_punctuation());
assert!(!g.is_ascii_punctuation());
assert!(!zero.is_ascii_punctuation());
assert!(percent.is_ascii_punctuation());
assert!(!space.is_ascii_punctuation());
assert!(!lf.is_ascii_punctuation());
assert!(!esc.is_ascii_punctuation());``````
Run

Checks if the value is an ASCII graphic character: U+0021 ‘!’ ..= U+007E ‘~’.

Examples
``````let uppercase_a = b'A';
let uppercase_g = b'G';
let a = b'a';
let g = b'g';
let zero = b'0';
let percent = b'%';
let space = b' ';
let lf = b'\n';
let esc = b'\x1b';

assert!(uppercase_a.is_ascii_graphic());
assert!(uppercase_g.is_ascii_graphic());
assert!(a.is_ascii_graphic());
assert!(g.is_ascii_graphic());
assert!(zero.is_ascii_graphic());
assert!(percent.is_ascii_graphic());
assert!(!space.is_ascii_graphic());
assert!(!lf.is_ascii_graphic());
assert!(!esc.is_ascii_graphic());``````
Run

Checks if the value is an ASCII whitespace character: U+0020 SPACE, U+0009 HORIZONTAL TAB, U+000A LINE FEED, U+000C FORM FEED, or U+000D CARRIAGE RETURN.

Rust uses the WhatWG Infra Standard’s definition of ASCII whitespace. There are several other definitions in wide use. For instance, the POSIX locale includes U+000B VERTICAL TAB as well as all the above characters, but—from the very same specification—the default rule for “field splitting” in the Bourne shell considers only SPACE, HORIZONTAL TAB, and LINE FEED as whitespace.

If you are writing a program that will process an existing file format, check what that format’s definition of whitespace is before using this function.

Examples
``````let uppercase_a = b'A';
let uppercase_g = b'G';
let a = b'a';
let g = b'g';
let zero = b'0';
let percent = b'%';
let space = b' ';
let lf = b'\n';
let esc = b'\x1b';

assert!(!uppercase_a.is_ascii_whitespace());
assert!(!uppercase_g.is_ascii_whitespace());
assert!(!a.is_ascii_whitespace());
assert!(!g.is_ascii_whitespace());
assert!(!zero.is_ascii_whitespace());
assert!(!percent.is_ascii_whitespace());
assert!(space.is_ascii_whitespace());
assert!(lf.is_ascii_whitespace());
assert!(!esc.is_ascii_whitespace());``````
Run

Checks if the value is an ASCII control character: U+0000 NUL ..= U+001F UNIT SEPARATOR, or U+007F DELETE. Note that most ASCII whitespace characters are control characters, but SPACE is not.

Examples
``````let uppercase_a = b'A';
let uppercase_g = b'G';
let a = b'a';
let g = b'g';
let zero = b'0';
let percent = b'%';
let space = b' ';
let lf = b'\n';
let esc = b'\x1b';

assert!(!uppercase_a.is_ascii_control());
assert!(!uppercase_g.is_ascii_control());
assert!(!a.is_ascii_control());
assert!(!g.is_ascii_control());
assert!(!zero.is_ascii_control());
assert!(!percent.is_ascii_control());
assert!(!space.is_ascii_control());
assert!(lf.is_ascii_control());
assert!(esc.is_ascii_control());``````
Run

Returns an iterator that produces an escaped version of a `u8`, treating it as an ASCII character.

The behavior is identical to `ascii::escape_default`.

Examples
``````
assert_eq!("0", b'0'.escape_ascii().to_string());
assert_eq!("\\t", b'\t'.escape_ascii().to_string());
assert_eq!("\\r", b'\r'.escape_ascii().to_string());
assert_eq!("\\n", b'\n'.escape_ascii().to_string());
assert_eq!("\\'", b'\''.escape_ascii().to_string());
assert_eq!("\\\"", b'"'.escape_ascii().to_string());
assert_eq!("\\\\", b'\\'.escape_ascii().to_string());
assert_eq!("\\x9d", b'\x9d'.escape_ascii().to_string());``````
Run

Trait Implementations

The resulting type after applying the `+` operator.
Performs the `+` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `+` operator.
Performs the `+` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `+` operator.
Performs the `+` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `+` operator.
Performs the `+` operation. Read more
Performs the `+=` operation. Read more
Performs the `+=` operation. Read more
Performs the `+=` operation. Read more
Performs the `+=` operation. Read more
Performs the `+=` operation. Read more
Performs the `+=` operation. Read more
Formats the value using the given formatter.
The resulting type after applying the `&` operator.
Performs the `&` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `&` operator.
Performs the `&` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `&` operator.
Performs the `&` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `&` operator.
Performs the `&` operation. Read more
Performs the `&=` operation. Read more
Performs the `&=` operation. Read more
Performs the `&=` operation. Read more
Performs the `&=` operation. Read more
Performs the `&=` operation. Read more
Performs the `&=` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `|` operator.
Performs the `|` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `|` operator.
Performs the `|` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `|` operator.
Performs the `|` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `|` operator.
Performs the `|` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `|` operator.
Performs the `|` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `|` operator.
Performs the `|` operation. Read more
Performs the `|=` operation. Read more
Performs the `|=` operation. Read more
Performs the `|=` operation. Read more
Performs the `|=` operation. Read more
Performs the `|=` operation. Read more
Performs the `|=` operation. Read more
Performs the `|=` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `^` operator.
Performs the `^` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `^` operator.
Performs the `^` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `^` operator.
Performs the `^` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `^` operator.
Performs the `^` operation. Read more
Performs the `^=` operation. Read more
Performs the `^=` operation. Read more
Performs the `^=` operation. Read more
Performs the `^=` operation. Read more
Performs the `^=` operation. Read more
Performs the `^=` operation. Read more
Returns a copy of the value. Read more
Performs copy-assignment from `source`. Read more
Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more

Returns the default value of `0`

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `/` operator.
Performs the `/` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `/` operator.
Performs the `/` operation. Read more

This operation rounds towards zero, truncating any fractional part of the exact result, and cannot panic.

The resulting type after applying the `/` operator.
The resulting type after applying the `/` operator.
Performs the `/` operation. Read more

This operation rounds towards zero, truncating any fractional part of the exact result.

Panics

This operation will panic if `other == 0`.

The resulting type after applying the `/` operator.
Performs the `/` operation. Read more
Performs the `/=` operation. Read more
Performs the `/=` operation. Read more
Performs the `/=` operation. Read more
Performs the `/=` operation. Read more
Performs the `/=` operation. Read more
Performs the `/=` operation. Read more

Converts a `NonZeroU8` into an `u8`

Converts a `bool` to a `u8`. The resulting value is `0` for `false` and `1` for `true` values.

Examples
``````assert_eq!(u8::from(true), 1);
assert_eq!(u8::from(false), 0);``````
Run

Converts an `u8` into an `AtomicU8`.

Maps a byte in 0x00..=0xFF to a `char` whose code point has the same value, in U+0000..=U+00FF.

Unicode is designed such that this effectively decodes bytes with the character encoding that IANA calls ISO-8859-1. This encoding is compatible with ASCII.

Note that this is different from ISO/IEC 8859-1 a.k.a. ISO 8859-1 (with one less hyphen), which leaves some “blanks”, byte values that are not assigned to any character. ISO-8859-1 (the IANA one) assigns them to the C0 and C1 control codes.

Note that this is also different from Windows-1252 a.k.a. code page 1252, which is a superset ISO/IEC 8859-1 that assigns some (not all!) blanks to punctuation and various Latin characters.

To confuse things further, on the Web `ascii`, `iso-8859-1`, and `windows-1252` are all aliases for a superset of Windows-1252 that fills the remaining blanks with corresponding C0 and C1 control codes.

Converts a `u8` into a `char`.

Examples
``````use std::mem;

let u = 32 as u8;
let c = char::from(u);
assert!(4 == mem::size_of_val(&c))``````
Run

Converts `u8` to `f32` losslessly.

Converts `u8` to `f64` losslessly.

Converts `u8` to `i128` losslessly.

Converts `u8` to `i16` losslessly.

Converts `u8` to `i32` losslessly.

Converts `u8` to `i64` losslessly.

Converts `u8` to `isize` losslessly.

Converts `u8` to `u128` losslessly.

Converts `u8` to `u16` losslessly.

Converts `u8` to `u32` losslessly.

Converts `u8` to `u64` losslessly.

Converts `u8` to `usize` losslessly.

The associated error which can be returned from parsing.
Parses a string `s` to return a value of this type. Read more
Feeds this value into the given `Hasher`. Read more
Feeds a slice of this type into the given `Hasher`. Read more
Formats the value using the given formatter.
Formats the value using the given formatter.
The resulting type after applying the `*` operator.
Performs the `*` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `*` operator.
Performs the `*` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `*` operator.
Performs the `*` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `*` operator.
Performs the `*` operation. Read more
Performs the `*=` operation. Read more
Performs the `*=` operation. Read more
Performs the `*=` operation. Read more
Performs the `*=` operation. Read more
Performs the `*=` operation. Read more
Performs the `*=` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `!` operator.
Performs the unary `!` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `!` operator.
Performs the unary `!` operation. Read more
Formats the value using the given formatter.
This method returns an `Ordering` between `self` and `other`. Read more
Compares and returns the maximum of two values. Read more
Compares and returns the minimum of two values. Read more
Restrict a value to a certain interval. Read more
This method tests for `self` and `other` values to be equal, and is used by `==`. Read more
This method tests for `!=`. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason. Read more
This method returns an ordering between `self` and `other` values if one exists. Read more
This method tests less than (for `self` and `other`) and is used by the `<` operator. Read more
This method tests less than or equal to (for `self` and `other`) and is used by the `<=` operator. Read more
This method tests greater than or equal to (for `self` and `other`) and is used by the `>=` operator. Read more
This method tests greater than (for `self` and `other`) and is used by the `>` operator. Read more
Method which takes an iterator and generates `Self` from the elements by multiplying the items. Read more
Method which takes an iterator and generates `Self` from the elements by multiplying the items. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `%` operator.
Performs the `%` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `%` operator.
Performs the `%` operation. Read more

This operation satisfies `n % d == n - (n / d) * d`, and cannot panic.

The resulting type after applying the `%` operator.
The resulting type after applying the `%` operator.
Performs the `%` operation. Read more

This operation satisfies `n % d == n - (n / d) * d`. The result has the same sign as the left operand.

Panics

This operation will panic if `other == 0`.

The resulting type after applying the `%` operator.
Performs the `%` operation. Read more
Performs the `%=` operation. Read more
Performs the `%=` operation. Read more
Performs the `%=` operation. Read more
Performs the `%=` operation. Read more
Performs the `%=` operation. Read more
Performs the `%=` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `<<` operator.
Performs the `<<` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
Performs the `<<=` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
The resulting type after applying the `>>` operator.
Performs the `>>` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more
Performs the `>>=` operation. Read more