Struct kernel::prelude::Vec1.0.0[][src]

pub struct Vec<T, A = Global> where
    A: Allocator
{ /* fields omitted */ }
Expand description

A contiguous growable array type, written as Vec<T> and pronounced ‘vector’.

Examples

let mut vec = Vec::new();
vec.push(1);
vec.push(2);

assert_eq!(vec.len(), 2);
assert_eq!(vec[0], 1);

assert_eq!(vec.pop(), Some(2));
assert_eq!(vec.len(), 1);

vec[0] = 7;
assert_eq!(vec[0], 7);

vec.extend([1, 2, 3].iter().copied());

for x in &vec {
    println!("{}", x);
}
assert_eq!(vec, [7, 1, 2, 3]);

The [vec!] macro is provided to make initialization more convenient:

let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3];
vec.push(4);
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2, 3, 4]);

It can also initialize each element of a Vec<T> with a given value. This may be more efficient than performing allocation and initialization in separate steps, especially when initializing a vector of zeros:

let vec = vec![0; 5];
assert_eq!(vec, [0, 0, 0, 0, 0]);

// The following is equivalent, but potentially slower:
let mut vec = Vec::with_capacity(5);
vec.resize(5, 0);
assert_eq!(vec, [0, 0, 0, 0, 0]);

For more information, see Capacity and Reallocation.

Use a Vec<T> as an efficient stack:

let mut stack = Vec::new();

stack.push(1);
stack.push(2);
stack.push(3);

while let Some(top) = stack.pop() {
    // Prints 3, 2, 1
    println!("{}", top);
}

Indexing

The Vec type allows to access values by index, because it implements the Index trait. An example will be more explicit:

let v = vec![0, 2, 4, 6];
println!("{}", v[1]); // it will display '2'

However be careful: if you try to access an index which isn’t in the Vec, your software will panic! You cannot do this:

let v = vec![0, 2, 4, 6];
println!("{}", v[6]); // it will panic!

Use get and get_mut if you want to check whether the index is in the Vec.

Slicing

A Vec can be mutable. On the other hand, slices are read-only objects. To get a slice, use &. Example:

fn read_slice(slice: &[usize]) {
    // ...
}

let v = vec![0, 1];
read_slice(&v);

// ... and that's all!
// you can also do it like this:
let u: &[usize] = &v;
// or like this:
let u: &[_] = &v;

In Rust, it’s more common to pass slices as arguments rather than vectors when you just want to provide read access. The same goes for String and &str.

Capacity and reallocation

The capacity of a vector is the amount of space allocated for any future elements that will be added onto the vector. This is not to be confused with the length of a vector, which specifies the number of actual elements within the vector. If a vector’s length exceeds its capacity, its capacity will automatically be increased, but its elements will have to be reallocated.

For example, a vector with capacity 10 and length 0 would be an empty vector with space for 10 more elements. Pushing 10 or fewer elements onto the vector will not change its capacity or cause reallocation to occur. However, if the vector’s length is increased to 11, it will have to reallocate, which can be slow. For this reason, it is recommended to use [Vec::with_capacity] whenever possible to specify how big the vector is expected to get.

Guarantees

Due to its incredibly fundamental nature, Vec makes a lot of guarantees about its design. This ensures that it’s as low-overhead as possible in the general case, and can be correctly manipulated in primitive ways by unsafe code. Note that these guarantees refer to an unqualified Vec<T>. If additional type parameters are added (e.g., to support custom allocators), overriding their defaults may change the behavior.

Most fundamentally, Vec is and always will be a (pointer, capacity, length) triplet. No more, no less. The order of these fields is completely unspecified, and you should use the appropriate methods to modify these. The pointer will never be null, so this type is null-pointer-optimized.

However, the pointer might not actually point to allocated memory. In particular, if you construct a Vec with capacity 0 via Vec::new, [vec![]][vec!], [Vec::with_capacity(0)][Vec::with_capacity], or by calling shrink_to_fit on an empty Vec, it will not allocate memory. Similarly, if you store zero-sized types inside a Vec, it will not allocate space for them. Note that in this case the Vec might not report a capacity of 0. Vec will allocate if and only if mem::size_of::<T>() * capacity() > 0. In general, Vec’s allocation details are very subtle — if you intend to allocate memory using a Vec and use it for something else (either to pass to unsafe code, or to build your own memory-backed collection), be sure to deallocate this memory by using from_raw_parts to recover the Vec and then dropping it.

If a Vec has allocated memory, then the memory it points to is on the heap (as defined by the allocator Rust is configured to use by default), and its pointer points to len initialized, contiguous elements in order (what you would see if you coerced it to a slice), followed by capacity-len logically uninitialized, contiguous elements.

A vector containing the elements 'a' and 'b' with capacity 4 can be visualized as below. The top part is the Vec struct, it contains a pointer to the head of the allocation in the heap, length and capacity. The bottom part is the allocation on the heap, a contiguous memory block.

            ptr      len  capacity
       +--------+--------+--------+
       | 0x0123 |      2 |      4 |
       +--------+--------+--------+
            |
            v
Heap   +--------+--------+--------+--------+
       |    'a' |    'b' | uninit | uninit |
       +--------+--------+--------+--------+
  • uninit represents memory that is not initialized, see MaybeUninit.
  • Note: the ABI is not stable and Vec makes no guarantees about its memory layout (including the order of fields).

Vec will never perform a “small optimization” where elements are actually stored on the stack for two reasons:

  • It would make it more difficult for unsafe code to correctly manipulate a Vec. The contents of a Vec wouldn’t have a stable address if it were only moved, and it would be more difficult to determine if a Vec had actually allocated memory.

  • It would penalize the general case, incurring an additional branch on every access.

Vec will never automatically shrink itself, even if completely empty. This ensures no unnecessary allocations or deallocations occur. Emptying a Vec and then filling it back up to the same len should incur no calls to the allocator. If you wish to free up unused memory, use shrink_to_fit or shrink_to.

push and insert will never (re)allocate if the reported capacity is sufficient. push and insert will (re)allocate if len==capacity. That is, the reported capacity is completely accurate, and can be relied on. It can even be used to manually free the memory allocated by a Vec if desired. Bulk insertion methods may reallocate, even when not necessary.

Vec does not guarantee any particular growth strategy when reallocating when full, nor when reserve is called. The current strategy is basic and it may prove desirable to use a non-constant growth factor. Whatever strategy is used will of course guarantee O(1) amortized push.

vec![x; n], vec![a, b, c, d], and [Vec::with_capacity(n)][Vec::with_capacity], will all produce a Vec with exactly the requested capacity. If len==capacity, (as is the case for the [vec!] macro), then a Vec<T> can be converted to and from a Box<[T]> without reallocating or moving the elements.

Vec will not specifically overwrite any data that is removed from it, but also won’t specifically preserve it. Its uninitialized memory is scratch space that it may use however it wants. It will generally just do whatever is most efficient or otherwise easy to implement. Do not rely on removed data to be erased for security purposes. Even if you drop a Vec, its buffer may simply be reused by another Vec. Even if you zero a Vec’s memory first, that might not actually happen because the optimizer does not consider this a side-effect that must be preserved. There is one case which we will not break, however: using unsafe code to write to the excess capacity, and then increasing the length to match, is always valid.

Currently, Vec does not guarantee the order in which elements are dropped. The order has changed in the past and may change again.

Implementations

Constructs a new, empty Vec<T>.

The vector will not allocate until elements are pushed onto it.

Examples

let mut vec: Vec<i32> = Vec::new();

Tries to construct a new, empty Vec<T> with the specified capacity.

The vector will be able to hold exactly capacity elements without reallocating. If capacity is 0, the vector will not allocate.

It is important to note that although the returned vector has the capacity specified, the vector will have a zero length. For an explanation of the difference between length and capacity, see Capacity and reallocation.

Examples

let mut vec = Vec::try_with_capacity(10).unwrap();

// The vector contains no items, even though it has capacity for more
assert_eq!(vec.len(), 0);
assert_eq!(vec.capacity(), 10);

// These are all done without reallocating...
for i in 0..10 {
    vec.push(i);
}
assert_eq!(vec.len(), 10);
assert_eq!(vec.capacity(), 10);

// ...but this may make the vector reallocate
vec.push(11);
assert_eq!(vec.len(), 11);
assert!(vec.capacity() >= 11);

let mut result = Vec::try_with_capacity(usize::MAX);
assert!(result.is_err());

Creates a Vec<T> directly from the raw components of another vector.

Safety

This is highly unsafe, due to the number of invariants that aren’t checked:

  • ptr needs to have been previously allocated via String/Vec<T> (at least, it’s highly likely to be incorrect if it wasn’t).
  • T needs to have the same size and alignment as what ptr was allocated with. (T having a less strict alignment is not sufficient, the alignment really needs to be equal to satisfy the dealloc requirement that memory must be allocated and deallocated with the same layout.)
  • length needs to be less than or equal to capacity.
  • capacity needs to be the capacity that the pointer was allocated with.

Violating these may cause problems like corrupting the allocator’s internal data structures. For example it is not safe to build a Vec<u8> from a pointer to a C char array with length size_t. It’s also not safe to build one from a Vec<u16> and its length, because the allocator cares about the alignment, and these two types have different alignments. The buffer was allocated with alignment 2 (for u16), but after turning it into a Vec<u8> it’ll be deallocated with alignment 1.

The ownership of ptr is effectively transferred to the Vec<T> which may then deallocate, reallocate or change the contents of memory pointed to by the pointer at will. Ensure that nothing else uses the pointer after calling this function.

Examples

use std::ptr;
use std::mem;

let v = vec![1, 2, 3];

// Prevent running `v`'s destructor so we are in complete control
// of the allocation.
let mut v = mem::ManuallyDrop::new(v);

// Pull out the various important pieces of information about `v`
let p = v.as_mut_ptr();
let len = v.len();
let cap = v.capacity();

unsafe {
    // Overwrite memory with 4, 5, 6
    for i in 0..len as isize {
        ptr::write(p.offset(i), 4 + i);
    }

    // Put everything back together into a Vec
    let rebuilt = Vec::from_raw_parts(p, len, cap);
    assert_eq!(rebuilt, [4, 5, 6]);
}
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (allocator_api)

Constructs a new, empty Vec<T, A>.

The vector will not allocate until elements are pushed onto it.

Examples

#![feature(allocator_api)]

use std::alloc::System;

let mut vec: Vec<i32, _> = Vec::new_in(System);

Tries to construct a new, empty Vec<T, A> with the specified capacity with the provided allocator.

The vector will be able to hold exactly capacity elements without reallocating. If capacity is 0, the vector will not allocate.

It is important to note that although the returned vector has the capacity specified, the vector will have a zero length. For an explanation of the difference between length and capacity, see Capacity and reallocation.

Examples

#![feature(allocator_api)]

use std::alloc::System;

let mut vec = Vec::try_with_capacity_in(10, System).unwrap();

// The vector contains no items, even though it has capacity for more
assert_eq!(vec.len(), 0);
assert_eq!(vec.capacity(), 10);

// These are all done without reallocating...
for i in 0..10 {
    vec.push(i);
}
assert_eq!(vec.len(), 10);
assert_eq!(vec.capacity(), 10);

// ...but this may make the vector reallocate
vec.push(11);
assert_eq!(vec.len(), 11);
assert!(vec.capacity() >= 11);

let mut result = Vec::try_with_capacity_in(usize::MAX, System);
assert!(result.is_err());
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (allocator_api)

Creates a Vec<T, A> directly from the raw components of another vector.

Safety

This is highly unsafe, due to the number of invariants that aren’t checked:

  • ptr needs to have been previously allocated via String/Vec<T> (at least, it’s highly likely to be incorrect if it wasn’t).
  • T needs to have the same size and alignment as what ptr was allocated with. (T having a less strict alignment is not sufficient, the alignment really needs to be equal to satisfy the dealloc requirement that memory must be allocated and deallocated with the same layout.)
  • length needs to be less than or equal to capacity.
  • capacity needs to be the capacity that the pointer was allocated with.

Violating these may cause problems like corrupting the allocator’s internal data structures. For example it is not safe to build a Vec<u8> from a pointer to a C char array with length size_t. It’s also not safe to build one from a Vec<u16> and its length, because the allocator cares about the alignment, and these two types have different alignments. The buffer was allocated with alignment 2 (for u16), but after turning it into a Vec<u8> it’ll be deallocated with alignment 1.

The ownership of ptr is effectively transferred to the Vec<T> which may then deallocate, reallocate or change the contents of memory pointed to by the pointer at will. Ensure that nothing else uses the pointer after calling this function.

Examples

#![feature(allocator_api)]

use std::alloc::System;

use std::ptr;
use std::mem;

let mut v = Vec::with_capacity_in(3, System);
v.push(1);
v.push(2);
v.push(3);

// Prevent running `v`'s destructor so we are in complete control
// of the allocation.
let mut v = mem::ManuallyDrop::new(v);

// Pull out the various important pieces of information about `v`
let p = v.as_mut_ptr();
let len = v.len();
let cap = v.capacity();
let alloc = v.allocator();

unsafe {
    // Overwrite memory with 4, 5, 6
    for i in 0..len as isize {
        ptr::write(p.offset(i), 4 + i);
    }

    // Put everything back together into a Vec
    let rebuilt = Vec::from_raw_parts_in(p, len, cap, alloc.clone());
    assert_eq!(rebuilt, [4, 5, 6]);
}
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (vec_into_raw_parts)

new API

Decomposes a Vec<T> into its raw components.

Returns the raw pointer to the underlying data, the length of the vector (in elements), and the allocated capacity of the data (in elements). These are the same arguments in the same order as the arguments to from_raw_parts.

After calling this function, the caller is responsible for the memory previously managed by the Vec. The only way to do this is to convert the raw pointer, length, and capacity back into a Vec with the from_raw_parts function, allowing the destructor to perform the cleanup.

Examples

#![feature(vec_into_raw_parts)]
let v: Vec<i32> = vec![-1, 0, 1];

let (ptr, len, cap) = v.into_raw_parts();

let rebuilt = unsafe {
    // We can now make changes to the components, such as
    // transmuting the raw pointer to a compatible type.
    let ptr = ptr as *mut u32;

    Vec::from_raw_parts(ptr, len, cap)
};
assert_eq!(rebuilt, [4294967295, 0, 1]);
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (allocator_api)

Decomposes a Vec<T> into its raw components.

Returns the raw pointer to the underlying data, the length of the vector (in elements), the allocated capacity of the data (in elements), and the allocator. These are the same arguments in the same order as the arguments to from_raw_parts_in.

After calling this function, the caller is responsible for the memory previously managed by the Vec. The only way to do this is to convert the raw pointer, length, and capacity back into a Vec with the from_raw_parts_in function, allowing the destructor to perform the cleanup.

Examples

#![feature(allocator_api, vec_into_raw_parts)]

use std::alloc::System;

let mut v: Vec<i32, System> = Vec::new_in(System);
v.push(-1);
v.push(0);
v.push(1);

let (ptr, len, cap, alloc) = v.into_raw_parts_with_alloc();

let rebuilt = unsafe {
    // We can now make changes to the components, such as
    // transmuting the raw pointer to a compatible type.
    let ptr = ptr as *mut u32;

    Vec::from_raw_parts_in(ptr, len, cap, alloc)
};
assert_eq!(rebuilt, [4294967295, 0, 1]);

Returns the number of elements the vector can hold without reallocating.

Examples

let vec: Vec<i32> = Vec::with_capacity(10);
assert_eq!(vec.capacity(), 10);
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (try_reserve)

new API

Tries to reserve capacity for at least additional more elements to be inserted in the given Vec<T>. The collection may reserve more space to avoid frequent reallocations. After calling try_reserve, capacity will be greater than or equal to self.len() + additional. Does nothing if capacity is already sufficient.

Errors

If the capacity overflows, or the allocator reports a failure, then an error is returned.

Examples

#![feature(try_reserve)]
use std::collections::TryReserveError;

fn process_data(data: &[u32]) -> Result<Vec<u32>, TryReserveError> {
    let mut output = Vec::new();

    // Pre-reserve the memory, exiting if we can't
    output.try_reserve(data.len())?;

    // Now we know this can't OOM in the middle of our complex work
    output.extend(data.iter().map(|&val| {
        val * 2 + 5 // very complicated
    }));

    Ok(output)
}
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (try_reserve)

new API

Tries to reserve the minimum capacity for exactly additional elements to be inserted in the given Vec<T>. After calling try_reserve_exact, capacity will be greater than or equal to self.len() + additional if it returns Ok(()). Does nothing if the capacity is already sufficient.

Note that the allocator may give the collection more space than it requests. Therefore, capacity can not be relied upon to be precisely minimal. Prefer reserve if future insertions are expected.

Errors

If the capacity overflows, or the allocator reports a failure, then an error is returned.

Examples

#![feature(try_reserve)]
use std::collections::TryReserveError;

fn process_data(data: &[u32]) -> Result<Vec<u32>, TryReserveError> {
    let mut output = Vec::new();

    // Pre-reserve the memory, exiting if we can't
    output.try_reserve_exact(data.len())?;

    // Now we know this can't OOM in the middle of our complex work
    output.extend(data.iter().map(|&val| {
        val * 2 + 5 // very complicated
    }));

    Ok(output)
}

Tries to shrink the capacity of the vector as much as possible.

It will drop down as close as possible to the length but the allocator may still inform the vector that there is space for a few more elements.

Examples

let mut vec = Vec::with_capacity(10);
vec.extend([1, 2, 3]);
assert_eq!(vec.capacity(), 10);
vec.try_shrink_to_fit().unwrap();
assert!(vec.capacity() >= 3);

Tries to convert the vector into Box<[T]>.

Note that this will drop any excess capacity.

Examples

let v = vec![1, 2, 3];

let slice = v.try_into_boxed_slice().unwrap();

Any excess capacity is removed:

let mut vec = Vec::with_capacity(10);
vec.extend([1, 2, 3]);

assert_eq!(vec.capacity(), 10);
let slice = vec.try_into_boxed_slice().unwrap();
assert_eq!(slice.into_vec().capacity(), 3);

Shortens the vector, keeping the first len elements and dropping the rest.

If len is greater than the vector’s current length, this has no effect.

The drain method can emulate truncate, but causes the excess elements to be returned instead of dropped.

Note that this method has no effect on the allocated capacity of the vector.

Examples

Truncating a five element vector to two elements:

let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
vec.truncate(2);
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2]);

No truncation occurs when len is greater than the vector’s current length:

let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3];
vec.truncate(8);
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2, 3]);

Truncating when len == 0 is equivalent to calling the clear method.

let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3];
vec.truncate(0);
assert_eq!(vec, []);

Extracts a slice containing the entire vector.

Equivalent to &s[..].

Examples

use std::io::{self, Write};
let buffer = vec![1, 2, 3, 5, 8];
io::sink().write(buffer.as_slice()).unwrap();

Extracts a mutable slice of the entire vector.

Equivalent to &mut s[..].

Examples

use std::io::{self, Read};
let mut buffer = vec![0; 3];
io::repeat(0b101).read_exact(buffer.as_mut_slice()).unwrap();

Returns a raw pointer to the vector’s buffer.

The caller must ensure that the vector outlives the pointer this function returns, or else it will end up pointing to garbage. Modifying the vector may cause its buffer to be reallocated, which would also make any pointers to it invalid.

The caller must also ensure that the memory the pointer (non-transitively) points to is never written to (except inside an UnsafeCell) using this pointer or any pointer derived from it. If you need to mutate the contents of the slice, use as_mut_ptr.

Examples

let x = vec![1, 2, 4];
let x_ptr = x.as_ptr();

unsafe {
    for i in 0..x.len() {
        assert_eq!(*x_ptr.add(i), 1 << i);
    }
}

Returns an unsafe mutable pointer to the vector’s buffer.

The caller must ensure that the vector outlives the pointer this function returns, or else it will end up pointing to garbage. Modifying the vector may cause its buffer to be reallocated, which would also make any pointers to it invalid.

Examples

// Allocate vector big enough for 4 elements.
let size = 4;
let mut x: Vec<i32> = Vec::with_capacity(size);
let x_ptr = x.as_mut_ptr();

// Initialize elements via raw pointer writes, then set length.
unsafe {
    for i in 0..size {
        *x_ptr.add(i) = i as i32;
    }
    x.set_len(size);
}
assert_eq!(&*x, &[0, 1, 2, 3]);
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (allocator_api)

Returns a reference to the underlying allocator.

Forces the length of the vector to new_len.

This is a low-level operation that maintains none of the normal invariants of the type. Normally changing the length of a vector is done using one of the safe operations instead, such as truncate, resize, extend, or clear.

Safety

  • new_len must be less than or equal to capacity().
  • The elements at old_len..new_len must be initialized.

Examples

This method can be useful for situations in which the vector is serving as a buffer for other code, particularly over FFI:

pub fn get_dictionary(&self) -> Option<Vec<u8>> {
    // Per the FFI method's docs, "32768 bytes is always enough".
    let mut dict = Vec::with_capacity(32_768);
    let mut dict_length = 0;
    // SAFETY: When `deflateGetDictionary` returns `Z_OK`, it holds that:
    // 1. `dict_length` elements were initialized.
    // 2. `dict_length` <= the capacity (32_768)
    // which makes `set_len` safe to call.
    unsafe {
        // Make the FFI call...
        let r = deflateGetDictionary(self.strm, dict.as_mut_ptr(), &mut dict_length);
        if r == Z_OK {
            // ...and update the length to what was initialized.
            dict.set_len(dict_length);
            Some(dict)
        } else {
            None
        }
    }
}

While the following example is sound, there is a memory leak since the inner vectors were not freed prior to the set_len call:

let mut vec = vec![vec![1, 0, 0],
                   vec![0, 1, 0],
                   vec![0, 0, 1]];
// SAFETY:
// 1. `old_len..0` is empty so no elements need to be initialized.
// 2. `0 <= capacity` always holds whatever `capacity` is.
unsafe {
    vec.set_len(0);
}

Normally, here, one would use clear instead to correctly drop the contents and thus not leak memory.

Removes an element from the vector and returns it.

The removed element is replaced by the last element of the vector.

This does not preserve ordering, but is O(1).

Panics

Panics if index is out of bounds.

Examples

let mut v = vec!["foo", "bar", "baz", "qux"];

assert_eq!(v.swap_remove(1), "bar");
assert_eq!(v, ["foo", "qux", "baz"]);

assert_eq!(v.swap_remove(0), "foo");
assert_eq!(v, ["baz", "qux"]);

Removes and returns the element at position index within the vector, shifting all elements after it to the left.

Panics

Panics if index is out of bounds.

Examples

let mut v = vec![1, 2, 3];
assert_eq!(v.remove(1), 2);
assert_eq!(v, [1, 3]);

Retains only the elements specified by the predicate.

In other words, remove all elements e such that f(&e) returns false. This method operates in place, visiting each element exactly once in the original order, and preserves the order of the retained elements.

Examples

let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3, 4];
vec.retain(|&x| x % 2 == 0);
assert_eq!(vec, [2, 4]);

Because the elements are visited exactly once in the original order, external state may be used to decide which elements to keep.

let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
let keep = [false, true, true, false, true];
let mut iter = keep.iter();
vec.retain(|_| *iter.next().unwrap());
assert_eq!(vec, [2, 3, 5]);

Removes all but the first of consecutive elements in the vector that resolve to the same key.

If the vector is sorted, this removes all duplicates.

Examples

let mut vec = vec![10, 20, 21, 30, 20];

vec.dedup_by_key(|i| *i / 10);

assert_eq!(vec, [10, 20, 30, 20]);

Removes all but the first of consecutive elements in the vector satisfying a given equality relation.

The same_bucket function is passed references to two elements from the vector and must determine if the elements compare equal. The elements are passed in opposite order from their order in the slice, so if same_bucket(a, b) returns true, a is removed.

If the vector is sorted, this removes all duplicates.

Examples

let mut vec = vec!["foo", "bar", "Bar", "baz", "bar"];

vec.dedup_by(|a, b| a.eq_ignore_ascii_case(b));

assert_eq!(vec, ["foo", "bar", "baz", "bar"]);

Tries to append an element to the back of a collection.

Examples

let mut vec = vec![1, 2];
vec.try_push(3).unwrap();
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2, 3]);

Removes the last element from a vector and returns it, or None if it is empty.

Examples

let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3];
assert_eq!(vec.pop(), Some(3));
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2]);

Creates a draining iterator that removes the specified range in the vector and yields the removed items.

When the iterator is dropped, all elements in the range are removed from the vector, even if the iterator was not fully consumed. If the iterator is not dropped (with mem::forget for example), it is unspecified how many elements are removed.

Panics

Panics if the starting point is greater than the end point or if the end point is greater than the length of the vector.

Examples

let mut v = vec![1, 2, 3];
let u: Vec<_> = v.drain(1..).collect();
assert_eq!(v, &[1]);
assert_eq!(u, &[2, 3]);

// A full range clears the vector
v.drain(..);
assert_eq!(v, &[]);

Clears the vector, removing all values.

Note that this method has no effect on the allocated capacity of the vector.

Examples

let mut v = vec![1, 2, 3];

v.clear();

assert!(v.is_empty());

Returns the number of elements in the vector, also referred to as its ‘length’.

Examples

let a = vec![1, 2, 3];
assert_eq!(a.len(), 3);

Returns true if the vector contains no elements.

Examples

let mut v = Vec::new();
assert!(v.is_empty());

v.push(1);
assert!(!v.is_empty());
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (vec_spare_capacity)

Returns the remaining spare capacity of the vector as a slice of MaybeUninit<T>.

The returned slice can be used to fill the vector with data (e.g. by reading from a file) before marking the data as initialized using the set_len method.

Examples

#![feature(vec_spare_capacity, maybe_uninit_extra)]

// Allocate vector big enough for 10 elements.
let mut v = Vec::with_capacity(10);

// Fill in the first 3 elements.
let uninit = v.spare_capacity_mut();
uninit[0].write(0);
uninit[1].write(1);
uninit[2].write(2);

// Mark the first 3 elements of the vector as being initialized.
unsafe {
    v.set_len(3);
}

assert_eq!(&v, &[0, 1, 2]);
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (vec_split_at_spare)

Returns vector content as a slice of T, along with the remaining spare capacity of the vector as a slice of MaybeUninit<T>.

The returned spare capacity slice can be used to fill the vector with data (e.g. by reading from a file) before marking the data as initialized using the set_len method.

Note that this is a low-level API, which should be used with care for optimization purposes. If you need to append data to a Vec you can use push, extend, extend_from_slice, extend_from_within, insert, append, resize or resize_with, depending on your exact needs.

Examples

#![feature(vec_split_at_spare, maybe_uninit_extra)]

let mut v = vec![1, 1, 2];

// Reserve additional space big enough for 10 elements.
v.reserve(10);

let (init, uninit) = v.split_at_spare_mut();
let sum = init.iter().copied().sum::<u32>();

// Fill in the next 4 elements.
uninit[0].write(sum);
uninit[1].write(sum * 2);
uninit[2].write(sum * 3);
uninit[3].write(sum * 4);

// Mark the 4 elements of the vector as being initialized.
unsafe {
    let len = v.len();
    v.set_len(len + 4);
}

assert_eq!(&v, &[1, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16]);

Tries to resize the Vec in-place so that len is equal to new_len.

If new_len is greater than len, the Vec is extended by the difference, with each additional slot filled with value. If new_len is less than len, the Vec is simply truncated.

This method requires T to implement Clone, in order to be able to clone the passed value. If you need more flexibility (or want to rely on Default instead of Clone), use [Vec::resize_with].

Examples

let mut vec = vec!["hello"];
vec.try_resize(3, "world").unwrap();
assert_eq!(vec, ["hello", "world", "world"]);

let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3, 4];
vec.try_resize(2, 0).unwrap();
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2]);

let mut vec = vec![42];
let result = vec.try_resize(usize::MAX, 0);
assert!(result.is_err());

Tries to clone and append all elements in a slice to the Vec.

Iterates over the slice other, clones each element, and then appends it to this Vec. The other vector is traversed in-order.

Note that this function is same as extend except that it is specialized to work with slices instead. If and when Rust gets specialization this function will likely be deprecated (but still available).

Examples

let mut vec = vec![1];
vec.try_extend_from_slice(&[2, 3, 4]).unwrap();
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2, 3, 4]);

Removes consecutive repeated elements in the vector according to the PartialEq trait implementation.

If the vector is sorted, this removes all duplicates.

Examples

let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 2, 3, 2];

vec.dedup();

assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2, 3, 2]);
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (drain_filter)

recently added

Creates an iterator which uses a closure to determine if an element should be removed.

If the closure returns true, then the element is removed and yielded. If the closure returns false, the element will remain in the vector and will not be yielded by the iterator.

Using this method is equivalent to the following code:

let mut i = 0;
while i < vec.len() {
    if some_predicate(&mut vec[i]) {
        let val = vec.remove(i);
        // your code here
    } else {
        i += 1;
    }
}

But drain_filter is easier to use. drain_filter is also more efficient, because it can backshift the elements of the array in bulk.

Note that drain_filter also lets you mutate every element in the filter closure, regardless of whether you choose to keep or remove it.

Examples

Splitting an array into evens and odds, reusing the original allocation:

#![feature(drain_filter)]
let mut numbers = vec![1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15];

let evens = numbers.drain_filter(|x| *x % 2 == 0).collect::<Vec<_>>();
let odds = numbers;

assert_eq!(evens, vec![2, 4, 6, 8, 14]);
assert_eq!(odds, vec![1, 3, 5, 9, 11, 13, 15]);

Trait Implementations

Performs the conversion.

Performs the conversion.

Performs the conversion.

Performs the conversion.

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more

Creates an empty Vec<T>.

The resulting type after dereferencing.

Dereferences the value.

Mutably dereferences the value.

Executes the destructor for this type. Read more

Performs the conversion.

Convert a boxed slice into a vector by transferring ownership of the existing heap allocation.

Examples

let b: Box<[i32]> = vec![1, 2, 3].into_boxed_slice();
assert_eq!(Vec::from(b), vec![1, 2, 3]);

Convert a clone-on-write slice into a vector.

If s already owns a Vec<T>, it will be returned directly. If s is borrowing a slice, a new Vec<T> will be allocated and filled by cloning s’s items into it.

Examples

let o: Cow<[i32]> = Cow::Owned(vec![1, 2, 3]);
let b: Cow<[i32]> = Cow::Borrowed(&[1, 2, 3]);
assert_eq!(Vec::from(o), Vec::from(b));

Converts the given String to a vector Vec that holds values of type u8.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s1 = String::from("hello world");
let v1 = Vec::from(s1);

for b in v1 {
    println!("{}", b);
}

Feeds this value into the given Hasher. Read more

Feeds a slice of this type into the given Hasher. Read more

The returned type after indexing.

Performs the indexing (container[index]) operation. Read more

Performs the mutable indexing (container[index]) operation. Read more

Creates a consuming iterator, that is, one that moves each value out of the vector (from start to end). The vector cannot be used after calling this.

Examples

let v = vec!["a".to_string(), "b".to_string()];
for s in v.into_iter() {
    // s has type String, not &String
    println!("{}", s);
}

The type of the elements being iterated over.

Which kind of iterator are we turning this into?

The type of the elements being iterated over.

Which kind of iterator are we turning this into?

Creates an iterator from a value. Read more

The type of the elements being iterated over.

Which kind of iterator are we turning this into?

Creates an iterator from a value. Read more

Implements ordering of vectors, lexicographically.

This method returns an Ordering between self and other. Read more

Compares and returns the maximum of two values. Read more

Compares and returns the minimum of two values. Read more

Restrict a value to a certain interval. Read more

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

Implements comparison of vectors, lexicographically.

This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more

This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more

This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more

This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more

This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more

Auto Trait Implementations

Blanket Implementations

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Performs the conversion.

Performs the conversion.

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Performs the conversion.

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Performs the conversion.